50 Important MCQs of Political Science

Here you will find 50 Important MCQs of Political Science. These 50 MCQs are basic and must-read questions about Political Science. I have also given the answers and explanations to each question. So find below these important MCQs with an explanation.

Important MCQs of Political Science

1. Which political ideology advocates for the equal distribution of wealth and resources?
a) Liberalism
b) Socialism
c) Fascism
d) Conservatism
Answer: b) Socialism
Explanation: Socialism promotes the idea of collective ownership of resources and advocates for a more equitable distribution of wealth among society’s members.

2. Who is considered the “Father of Modern Political Science”?
a) Niccolò Machiavelli
b) Thomas Hobbes
c) John Locke
d) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Answer: a) Niccolò Machiavelli
Explanation: Niccolò Machiavelli, an Italian philosopher, and writer, is often regarded as the “Father of Modern Political Science” for his influential work “The Prince,” which examines political power and leadership.

3. Which system of government is characterized by rule by a single individual with absolute authority?
a) Democracy
b) Autocracy
c) Oligarchy
d) Theocracy
Answer: b) Autocracy
Explanation: Autocracy is a system of government in which a single individual, such as a monarch or dictator, holds absolute power and authority over the state and its people.

4. What is the term used to describe a political system in which power is divided between a central government and regional governments?
a) Monarchy
b) Confederation
c) Federation
d) Unitary state
Answer: c) Federation
Explanation: A federation is a political system in which power is shared between a central government and regional governments, allowing both levels of government to have some degree of autonomy and authority.

5. Which international organization is responsible for maintaining international peace and security?
a) World Trade Organization (WTO)
b) International Monetary Fund (IMF)
c) United Nations (UN)
d) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Answer: c) United Nations (UN)
Explanation: The United Nations is an international organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, promote cooperation among nations, and address global issues such as poverty, climate change, and human rights.

6. Which document serves as the supreme law of the United States?
a) Declaration of Independence
b) Bill of Rights
c) Constitution
d) Articles of Confederation
Answer: c) Constitution
Explanation: The Constitution of the United States is the fundamental law that establishes the structure of the government, outlines the powers and limitations of each branch, and guarantees individual rights.

7. Who is the head of state in a parliamentary system?
a) President
b) Prime Minister
c) Monarch
d) Speaker of the House
Answer: c) Monarch
Explanation: In a parliamentary system, the head of state is often a monarch or a ceremonial figurehead who represents the unity and continuity of the state, while the head of government is the Prime Minister.

8. Which principle states that the judiciary can review and strike down laws or government actions that are unconstitutional?
a) Judicial activism
b) Judicial restraint
c) Judicial review
d) Judicial supremacy
Answer: c) Judicial review
Explanation: Judicial review is the power of the courts to review and invalidate laws or government actions that are found to be in violation of the Constitution.

9. Which branch of government is responsible for making laws in a presidential system?
a) Executive branch
b) Legislative branch
c) Judicial branch
d) Bureaucratic branch
Answer: b) Legislative branch
Explanation: In a presidential system, the legislative branch, which typically consists of a Congress or Parliament, is responsible for making laws and representing the interests of the people.

10. Which political system grants citizens the right to participate directly in decision-making through popular votes and referendums?
a) Authoritarianism
b) Totalitarianism
c) Direct democracy
d) Representative democracy
Answer: c) Direct democracy
Explanation: Direct democracy is a political system in which citizens have the power to make decisions directly through voting and referendums, without relying solely on elected representatives.

11. Which political theorist introduced the concept of the “social contract”?
a) John Locke
b) Karl Marx
c) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
d) Thomas Hobbes
Answer: c) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Explanation: Jean-Jacques Rousseau proposed the idea of the “social contract” in his work “The Social Contract,” suggesting that individuals willingly enter into a collective agreement to establish a government that serves the common good.

12. Which type of electoral system allocates seats to political parties based on the percentage of votes they receive?
a) Proportional representation
b) First-past-the-post
c) Single transferable vote
d) Mixed-member proportional
Answer: a) Proportional representation
Explanation: Proportional representation is an electoral system that aims to allocate seats in a legislative body in proportion to the votes received by political parties, ensuring greater representation for smaller parties.

13. Who holds the executive power in a presidential system?
a) Monarch
b) Prime Minister
c) President
d) Speaker of the House
Answer: c) President
Explanation: In a presidential system, the President is the head of state and government, and they hold the executive power, including the authority to enforce laws and make important decisions.

14. Which principle refers to the division of powers between the national government and state governments in the United States?
a) Federalism
b) Pluralism
c) Separation of powers
d) Judicial review
Answer: a) Federalism
Explanation: Federalism is a political principle in which power is divided and shared between a central government and regional or state governments, as seen in the United States.

15. Which international organization promotes economic cooperation and trade among its member countries?
a) World Bank
b) International Monetary Fund (IMF)
c) World Trade Organization (WTO)
d) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Answer: c) World Trade Organization (WTO)
Explanation: The World Trade Organization is an international organization that facilitates global trade, sets rules for international commerce, and promotes economic cooperation among its member countries.

16. Which political ideology advocates for minimal government intervention in economic and social affairs?
a) Socialism
b) Liberalism
c) Fascism
d) Conservatism
Answer: b) Liberalism
Explanation: Liberalism emphasizes individual freedom, limited government intervention, and the protection of civil liberties. It advocates for free markets and social tolerance.

17. Which term refers to the practice of granting favors or privileges in exchange for political support?
a) Patronage
b) Gerrymandering
c) Lobbying
d) Filibustering
Answer: a) Patronage
Explanation: Patronage is the practice of granting favors, appointments, or privileges to individuals or groups in exchange for political support or loyalty.

18. Which political ideology places a strong emphasis on traditional values, social order, and limited social change?
a) Socialism
b) Liberalism
c) Fascism
d) Conservatism
Answer: d) Conservatism
Explanation: Conservatism is a political ideology that favors tradition, social stability, and limited government intervention. It emphasizes the preservation of established institutions and values.

19. Which term refers to the process of peaceful negotiation and compromise between conflicting parties to resolve disputes?
a) Mediation
b) Diplomacy
c) Arbitration
d) Sanction
Answer: b) Diplomacy
Explanation: Diplomacy is the practice of conducting negotiations, establishing dialogue, and reaching agreements between nations or other parties to resolve conflicts peacefully.

20. Which branch of government interprets the law and ensures its constitutionality in the United States?
a) Executive branch
b) Legislative branch
c) Judicial branch
d) Bureaucratic branch
Answer: c) Judicial branch
Explanation: In the United States, the judicial branch, headed by the Supreme Court, interprets laws, resolves legal disputes, and ensures the constitutionality of legislation and government actions.

21. Which political theory argues that the state exists to serve the interests of the ruling class and perpetuate economic inequality?
a) Liberalism
b) Socialism
c) Marxism
d) Anarchism
Answer: c) Marxism
Explanation: Marxism, developed by Karl Marx, posits that the state is a tool of the ruling class and serves to maintain the dominant economic system, such as capitalism, leading to social inequality.

22. Which term refers to the process of removing an elected official from office before their term expires?
a) Impeachment
b) Recall
c) Ouster
d) Resignation
Answer: a) Impeachment
Explanation: Impeachment is the process through which an elected official, such as a president or governor, can be removed from office due to alleged misconduct or violations of the law.

23. Which political system is characterized by a single party holding power, suppressing opposition, and controlling all aspects of public life?
a) Democracy
b) Totalitarianism
c) Pluralism
d) Libertarianism
Answer: b) Totalitarianism
Explanation: Totalitarianism is a political system in which a single ruling party or leader exercises absolute control over all aspects of public life, including politics, the economy, and society.

24. Which principle refers to the equal distribution of political power among different branches of government?
a) Separation of powers
b) Checks and balances
c) Judicial review
d) Rule of law
Answer: a) Separation of powers
Explanation: Separation of powers is a principle that divides governmental authority among three branches—legislative, executive, and judicial—to prevent concentration of power and maintain a system of checks and balances.

25. Which term describes a system of government in which a small group of individuals holds political power?
a) Oligarchy
b) Monarchy
c) Democracy
d) Plutocracy
Answer: a) Oligarchy
Explanation: An oligarchy is a form of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of a small group of individuals or a ruling elite.

26. Which political ideology advocates for the abolition of all forms of government and the establishment of a society without hierarchical authority?
a) Anarchism
b) Libertarianism
c) Communism
d) Authoritarianism
Answer: a) Anarchism
Explanation: Anarchism is a political ideology that opposes all forms of government and advocates for a society based on voluntary cooperation, individual freedom, and the absence of hierarchical authority.

27. Who is considered the founder of modern liberalism?
a) John Locke
b) Adam Smith
c) John Stuart Mill
d) Friedrich Hayek
Answer: a) John Locke
Explanation: John Locke is often regarded as the founder of modern liberalism for his contributions to political philosophy, including his ideas on individual rights, limited government, and the social contract.

28. Which term refers to a system of government in which power is vested in a single ruler who inherits the position based on hereditary succession?
a) Monarchy
b) Republic
c) Theocracy
d) Aristocracy
Answer: a) Monarchy
Explanation: A monarchy is a system of government in which a single ruler, typically a king or queen, holds a position based on hereditary succession.

29. Which term describes a system of government characterized by the rule of the few individuals who are typically wealthy and powerful?
a) Democracy
b) Plutocracy
c) Oligarchy
d) Meritocracy
Answer: b) Plutocracy
Explanation: Plutocracy is a system of government in which power is held by a small group of wealthy individuals who exert influence and control over political decisions.

30. Who is often credited with the concept of the “invisible hand” in economics?
a) John Maynard Keynes
b) Karl Marx
c) Friedrich Hayek
d) Adam Smith
Answer: d) Adam Smith
Explanation: Adam Smith, a Scottish economist, is often associated with the concept of the “invisible hand,” which suggests that in a free market, self-interested individuals’ actions can lead to beneficial outcomes for society as a whole.

31. Which branch of government is responsible for interpreting laws and ensuring their constitutionality in the United States?
a) Executive branch
b) Legislative branch
c) Judicial branch
d) Bureaucratic branch
Answer: c) Judicial branch
Explanation: The judicial branch in the United States, headed by the Supreme Court, is responsible for interpreting laws, resolving disputes, and ensuring that laws and government actions align with the Constitution.

32. Which principle asserts that government authority is derived from the consent of the governed?
a) Popular sovereignty
b) Judicial supremacy
c) Rule of law
d) Separation of powers
Answer: a) Popular sovereignty
Explanation: Popular sovereignty is the principle that the source of governmental power and legitimacy lies with the people who are governed, as they grant authority to the government through their consent.

33. Which term describes a system of government where power is concentrated in the hands of a single leader who exercises authoritarian control?
a) Democracy
b) Autocracy
c) Pluralism
d) Republic
Answer: b) Autocracy
Explanation: Autocracy is a system of government in which power is held by a single leader or ruler who wields authoritarian control over the state and its citizens.

34. Which international organization is responsible for the settlement of disputes between nations and the maintenance of international peace?
a) United Nations (UN)
b) International Monetary Fund (IMF)
c) World Bank
d) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Answer: a) United Nations (UN)
Explanation: The United Nations is an international organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, facilitate cooperation among nations, and provide a forum for resolving conflicts through peaceful means.

35. Who wrote the influential book “The Communist Manifesto”?
a) Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
b) Vladimir Lenin
c) Joseph Stalin
d) Leon Trotsky
Answer: a) Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Explanation: “The Communist Manifesto” was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, outlining the principles and goals of communism and serving as a foundational text for the socialist movement.

37. Which term refers to the process of redrawing electoral district boundaries to benefit a particular political party?
a) Gerrymandering
b) Filibustering
c) Lobbying
d) Caucus
Answer: a) Gerrymandering
Explanation: Gerrymandering is the practice of manipulating electoral district boundaries to favor a particular political party or group by strategically altering the shape and composition of the districts.

38. Which principle refers to the belief that citizens have the right and responsibility to participate in public affairs and contribute to decision-making processes?
a) Representative democracy
b) Pluralism
c) Popular sovereignty
d) Civic participation
Answer: d) Civic participation
Explanation: Civic participation is the principle that asserts the rights and responsibilities of citizens to engage in public affairs, contribute to decision-making processes, and actively participate in the democratic functioning of society.

39. Who is considered the founder of modern communism?
a) Karl Marx
b) Friedrich Engels
c) Vladimir Lenin
d) Joseph Stalin
Answer: a) Karl Marx
Explanation: Karl Marx is considered the founder of modern communism for his development of Marxist theory, which advocates for the abolition of class distinctions and the establishment of a classless society.

40. Which term describes a system of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of religious leaders or institutions?
a) Secularism
b) Plutocracy
c) Theocracy
d) Meritocracy
Answer: c) Theocracy
Explanation: A theocracy is a system of government in which religious leaders or institutions hold political power and influence, and religious law or doctrine governs the state and its citizens.

41. Who is responsible for enforcing laws and carrying out day-to-day governance in a parliamentary system?
a) President
b) Prime Minister
c) Monarch
d) Speaker of the House
Answer: b) Prime Minister
Explanation: In a parliamentary system, the Prime Minister is responsible for enforcing laws, implementing policies, and carrying out day-to-day governance. They are usually the head of government and hold significant executive powers.

42. Which term describes a policy of avoiding involvement or entanglement in international conflicts or alliances?
a) Isolationism
b) Multilateralism
c) Imperialism
d) Globalism
Answer: a) Isolationism
Explanation: Isolationism is a policy stance where a country avoids getting involved in international conflicts or alliances and seeks to limit its interactions with other nations.

43. Which principle states that all individuals are equal before the law and subject to the same legal treatment?
a) Due process
b) Rule of law
c) Judicial review
d) Legal pluralism
Answer: b) Rule of law
Explanation: The rule of law is a principle that asserts the supremacy of the law and the equal treatment of individuals before the law, ensuring that everyone is subject to the same legal rules and procedures.

44. Which term refers to a system of government in which power is divided between a central government and regional governments?
a) Federalism
b) Unitarism
c) Confederation
d) Devolution
Answer: a) Federalism
Explanation: Federalism is a system of government where power is shared and divided between a central government and regional or state governments, allowing each level to have certain powers and autonomy.

45. Who developed the concept of the “social contract” in political philosophy?
a) Thomas Hobbes
b) John Locke
c) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
d) Montesquieu
Answer: c) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Explanation: Jean-Jacques Rousseau developed the concept of the “social contract,” which suggests that individuals enter into an implicit agreement with the government to surrender certain rights in exchange for protection and the common good.

46. Which term describes a system of government where power is held by the people, who exercise their authority through voting and participation?
a) Democracy
b) Authoritarianism
c) Totalitarianism
d) Pluralism
Answer: a) Democracy
Explanation: Democracy is a system of government in which power is vested in the people, who exercise their authority through voting, participation in decision-making processes, and the protection of individual rights and liberties.

47. Which political ideology advocates for the ownership and control of the means of production by the working class?
a) Capitalism
b) Socialism
c) Fascism
d) Liberalism
Answer: b) Socialism
Explanation: Socialism is a political ideology that advocates for the collective ownership and control of the means of production, with the goal of achieving economic equality and social justice.

48. Which term refers to a system of government where power is concentrated in the hands of a small, privileged elite?
a) Democracy
b) Pluralism
c) Oligarchy
d) Federalism
Answer: c) Oligarchy
Explanation: Oligarchy is a system of government in which power is held by a small group of individuals who possess wealth, social status, or political influence.

49. Which political theory emphasizes the importance of individual liberty, limited government, and free markets?
a) Socialism
b) Liberalism
c) Conservatism
d) Fascism
Answer: b) Liberalism
Explanation: Liberalism is a political theory that prioritizes individual freedom, limited government intervention, and the protection of civil liberties. It advocates for free markets and social tolerance.

50. Which term describes a form of government where a single political party dominates all aspects of political life?
a) Democracy
b) Authoritarianism
c) Totalitarianism
d) Pluralism
Answer: c) Totalitarianism
Explanation: Totalitarianism is a form of government where a single political party exercises complete control over all aspects of political, social, and cultural life, often suppressing opposition and dissent.

So, these are the 50 most important MCQs about Political Science. If you have any questions please ask in the comment section below.

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